The industry's ability to weather current challenges will have global implications.
With the Permian possibly falling short of expectations, the U.S. shale boom may not be the panacea to keep prices relatively low at a time OPEC is restraining supply and geopolitical risks threaten more supply disruptions.
U.S. crude exports have climbed significantly, reaching as high as 2.3 million barrels per day, but further gains will be difficult to achieve.
Shale has upended global energy markets but two questions remain unanswered: Can it be called upon to meet demand growth, and will it ever be profitable?
WoodMac sees Permian production peaking at 3.5 million barrels per day in 2021, but that forecast stands in sharp contrast to other estimates pointing to robust growth for the foreseeable future.
The potential acceleration of decline rates at some shale wells is an ominous sign that the drilling bonanza in West Texas should not be taken for granted.
There are some signs that the U.S. shale industry is bumping up against its productivity limits, which could lead to lower-than-expected output gains or rising drilling costs.
With so much focus on OPEC cuts and shale growth as of late, declines at existing fields and demand increases from low prices mean that a supply gap will eventually form, even if the rosiest scenario pans out in the Permian.
Even though a large amount of shale production is hedged for this year, the industry is still vulnerable to cost inflation, access to capital markets and investment banks, and fluctuations in the oil price.
Exxon and other oil majors are still giving the green light to a handful of complex and risky but potentially highly profitable projects offshore, while at the same time increasingly shifting more resources into safer, smaller-scale shale drilling.